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GEOLOGICAL MAP / CROATIA / YUGOSLAVIA: Geološka karta srednje in spodnje Istre s sosednjimi otoki [Geological Map of Middle and Lower Istria with the Neighbouring Islands].



A large, seemingly unrecorded geological wall map of South Istria and Northern Dalmatian Islands with manuscript colouring was made after WWII, when the territory was regained by Yugoslavia after more than two decades under Fascist Italian government.

1 in stock


A large unusual map, reproduced with a photographic procedure as a whiteprint and elaborately coloured per hand, shows the geological stricture of parts of Istria and northern Dalmatian islands, today in Croatia.

The map was probably made in 1947 or immediately after, when Yugoslavia was granted this part of Istria in the Paris Peace Treaty on February 10th, 1947 and was rebuilding the railroad system in the area.

The map is signed by Rado Strnad (1900–?), a state geologist and geographer, who also names people helping him with the project.


Historical Background


Up to the end of World War I, the city of Trieste and the Istrian Peninsula, to its south, were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.  The region was ethnically mixed, with large portions of the population being Italian, Slovenian, Croatian, and Austro-German, amongst other groups.  Historically, the venerable port city of Trieste proper, although long a part of the Habsburg Empire, was a majority Italian, with a large Slovenian minority, while the areas surrounding the city were overwhelmingly populated by Slovenians.  Further south, in far north-western Istria, the population was mixed, although the Italian-speaking population was often the majority right along the coast, while the Slovenes dominates inland areas (a legacy of the location of the old Habsburg-Venetian border which existed until the Napoleonic Wars).  Further south, deeper into Istria, the population was mixed between Croatians and Italians.  Traditionally, while things were not perfect, these ethnic groups got along quite well.

That all changed following World War I, when the entire region was given to Italy.  Benito Mussolini, who became the Italian dictator in 1922, enforced a policy of ‘Italianization’ of Trieste and Istria, brutally suppressing any manifestations of Slovene or Croatian culture.  While many of the Italians native to the region did not support this policy, Mussolini brought in tens of thousands of pro-Fascist migrants who did.  Almost overnight, Mussolini had ruined a peaceful and enlightened multi-ethnic society.  Many Slovenes and Croatians were either forced to suppress their identity or immigrate to the newly created state of Yugoslavia, or overseas.  That being said an underground Slovene resistance movement developed in Trieste operating under the motto: ‘Trst je naš!’ [‘Trieste is Ours!’].

Moving forward to 1945, Yugoslavia and her Allies were victorious over Nazi Germany and her client state Italy.  Marshall Tito, the Yugoslav leader, had conquered Trieste and Istria and was naturally eager to re-establish the full Slovene and Croatian cultural presence, and to annex the area to Yugoslavia.  However, the Allied powers, not wanting to provoke further rancour in Central Europe, called for a more cautious approach.  While it was acknowledged that Slovenian and Croatian majority areas should, in theory, be granted to Yugoslavia, the problem remained that placing Trieste, a large majority-Italian city within Yugoslavia could cause big headaches.  Making matters even more complex, Trieste was virtually surrounded by majority Slovene areas.

The temporary solution was to form the Free Territory of Trieste, created in 1947, it was to consist of the narrow coastal area of Trieste and environs and the north-western part of the Istrian Peninsula (the rest of Istria had already been ceded to Yugoslavia).  While the Free State had some of the trappings of an independent country (i.e. its own stamps and passports), in reality, it was merely and ephemeral entity living on borrowed time, nervously overseen by the Allied powers and the United Nations.

The map was probably hand made in limited edition for institutional and research purposes only. We could not trace another copy in institutions nor on the market.

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