A very rare primer in Hebrew and Ottoman was printed in Izmir, Turkey, in 1913.
The port of Izmir was in the 18th and 19th century a flourishing center and with 40,000 Jews in 1868 the third largest Jewish community in the Ottoman Empire. The tensions between other inhabitants of the city and the Jews increased towards the end of the 19th century, forcing many Jewish families to seek their home in other towns or countries. By the first years of the 20th century, almost half of the Jewish population left Izmir.
The pamphlet is unrecorded in the literature available to us and we could not find any institutional examples.