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Theory of Relativity in the Ottoman Empire: آينشتايز نظريه سى. مكان، زمان، و كتله مفهوملرينن تبدلى



A rare book on the theory of relativity was written by one of the first Ottoman electrical engineers Mehmed Refik and contains various experiments, which should be tested in order to confirm Einstein’s theory, published in the final form in 1916.


Large 8°. 40 pp. with black and white illustrations, original illustrated wrappers (minor foxing, wrappers slightly scratched and stained, cracks and holes around the spine, otherwise in a good condition).´


1 in stock


Mehmed Refik Fenmen (1882-1951) was born in a well-educated family. His maternal grandfather was an influential statesman during the Tanzimat period Midhat Pasha (1822-1883), and his father Vefik was a governor of Aleppo. After finishing the French lycée in Istanbul Mehmed Refik moved to Lausanne, where he graduated from mathematics and physics at the University of Lausanne, and after that to Liège, where he specialized in electricity at the Montefiore Institute.

After his return to Istanbul Mehmed Refik became a lecturer of mathematics and physics at the Darülfünun (University). In 1912, he authored a schoolbook on electricity Fenn-i Elektrik ve Tatbikât-ı Sınâiyesi (The Science of Electric and Its Industrial Application) and later founded a popular science magazine Fen Alemi (World of Science).

In the next years Refik became a director of Hendese-i Mülkiye Mektebi (Civil Engineering School) and Mühendis Mekteb-i Âlîsi (The Imperial School of Enginering).

We could not find any institutional examples on Worldcat.

References: BDK – ÖZEGE; 1406.Cf.: Gurdal OZCAKIR, Examination of Mehmet Refik Fenmen’ life in that scientists and educationist. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 2015, 3 (1), pp. 29-41; Emine ÖZTANER, Technology as a Multidirectional Construction: Electrification of Istanbul in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, 2014.


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